Educational Publishers since 1933

BOOKS

ANTHROPOLOGY

A MANUAL OF BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

INDERA P. SINGH and M.K. BHASIN (University of Delhi, Delhi, India)

Pages: 560 + Figures • ISBN 81-85264-34-1• Size: 180 × 240 mm

Binding: Hard

Price: US$ 60/- Rs. 1950/-

biological_anthropology

“It is in every respect an up-to-date handbook of all the various methods, which have to be applied in all that fields of Biological Anthropology ……….”

-Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. H. Walter, Editor-in-Chief, Anthropologischer Anzeiger, Hameln, Germany

“This is a very valuable contribution to biological anthropologists everywhere……..”

- Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Anthropology, Asian Studies & Board Certified Forensic Anthropologist (D.A.B.F.A.), Cornell University, Ithaca, USA

“This manual is going to be an invaluable companion to the any anthropologist. There are no other competitor manuals or textbooks, because the manual has been created specifically to address knowledge, skills, and activity objectives that must be mastered by any one who takes up the anthropology course.”

-Prof. Dr. S. K. Verma, Department Physiotherapy & Sports Science, Punjabi University, Patiala, India

“In a nutshell it can be said that the Manual of Biological Anthropology is well conceived of, contains vast information on the subject, is precisely put into meaningful chapters, is a treasure house of knowledge and a must for inquisitive scholar of anthropology.”

-Prof. Dr. S. P. Singh, Department Human Biology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India

“The authors have used their outstanding expertise and long experience in bringing out this manual which will be used for many decades by the students and research workers in the relevant areas of life sciences.”

-Prof. Dr. Mohammad Fahim, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, India

“It is an excellent and most extensive manual which each scholar/institute in the field of Biological Anthropology must possess.”

-Prof. Dr. Indu Talwar, Department of Anthropology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India

“The admirable anthology covering diverse methods of Anthropology, Life Sciences and Medicine is the exquisiteness of this book. The students and the scholars of Anthropology, Life Sciences and Medicine will find it a useful and enriching text of knowledge.”

-Prof. Dr. S. L. Malik, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, India

“This volume would be of mammoth significance to the researchers, post graduates, graduates and teachersof Biological/Physical Anthropology ………It would turnout to be one of the most referred books in the Libraries of various Universities and other Research Organizations.”

-Prof. Dr. Suriender Nath, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, India

“A Practical Manual dealing with such diverse fields can only be the result a dedicated commitment of the authors to make it easier for the readers to understand the nuances of various techniques in the field of Anthropology and Forensic Science.”

-Prof. Dr. A. K. Kalla, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, India

Biological anthropology can be defined as the scientific study of nature-nature relationship, although each element of this interaction, i.e. nature and nurture, can be holistically studied in itself. Thus there is genetical study of a morphological, anatomical or serological trait, and there is also anthropology of food and nutrition in the orbit of biological anthropology. Disciplines like ecology and demography, which lie at the interface of cultural and biological which anthropology are indispensable to determine the biological status of a population. For accomplishing the studies of nature, nurture and their ensuring relationships, the concept of population, consisting of the people sharing the same gene pool, is imperative. Biological anthropology as it stands today is an investigation of micro-evolutionary adaptational process, dialectically related to natural and cultural environments, which determine the survival value of a population. In addition to delineating the biological profile of a Mendelian group, the applied dimensions of biological anthropology determine the pathogenic characters of a population, suggesting viable and concrete programmes for their alleviation. The present manual consists of osteology, anthropometry (craniometry, osteometry, somatometry), somatoscopy, dental, physiology, nutrition, dermatoglyphics and demography. Each techniques, its execution and other related aspects have been described in detail. The manual contains a chapter on statistics which describes how data are to be statistically treated and inferences drawn.

CONTENTS

Preface

Acknowledgements

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

2. ANTHROPOMETRY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 INSTRUMENTS

3. OSTEOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 TYPES OF BONE

3.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF BONE

3.4 NAME OF BONE

3.4.1 Axial Skeleton

3.4.1.1 Skull

3.4.1.2 Vertebrae

3.4.1.3 Sternum

3.4.1.4 Ribs

3.4.2 Appendicular Skeleton

3.4.2.1 Upper Limbs

3.4.2.2 Lower Limbs

3.5 DETERMINATION OF SEX

3.6 TABLE OF BONES

4. OSTEOMETRY

4.1 STERNUM

4.1.1 Measurements

4.1.2 Indices

4.2 RIBS

4.2.1 Measurements

4.2.2 Indices

4.3 THORAX AS A WHOLE

4.3.1 Measurements

4.3.2 Index

4.4 VERTEBRAE

4.4.1 Measurements

4.4.2 Angle

4.4.3 Indices

4.5 CLAVICLE

4.5.1 Measurements

4.5.2 Angles

4.5.3 Indices

4.6 SCAPULA

4.6.1 Measurements

4.6.2 Angles

4.6.3 Indices

4.7 HUMERUS

4.7.1 Measurements

4.7.2 Angles

4.7.3 Indices

4.8 RADIUS

4.8.1 Measurements

4.8.2 Angles

4.8.3 Indices

4.9 ULNA

4.9.1 Measurements

4.9.2 Angles

4.9.3 Indices

4.10 HAND

4.10.1 Measurements

4.10-A Navicular or Scaphoid Bone

4.10-A (1) Measurements

4.10-A (2) Indices

4.10-B Lunate Bone

4.10-B (1) Measurements

4.10-B (2) Angles

4.10-B (3) Indices

4.10-C Triquetral Bone

4.10-C (1) Measurements

4.10-C (2) Indices

4.10-D Pisiform Bone

4.10-D (1) Measurements

4.10-D (2) Indices

4.10-E Trapezium Bone

4.10-E (1) Measurements

4.10-E (2) Indices

4.10-F Trapezoid Bone

4.10-F (1) Measurements

4.10-F (2) Indices

4.10-G Capitate Bone

4.10-G (1) Measurements

4.10-G (2) Indices

4.10-H Hamate Bone

4.10-H (1) Measurements

4.10-H (2) Angle

4.10-H (3) Indices

4.11 PELVIS

4.11.1 Measurements

4.11.2 Angles

4.11.3 Indices

4.12 SACRUM

4.12.1 Measurements

4.12.2 Angles

4.12.3 Indices

4.13 FEMUR

4.13.1 Measurements

4.13.2 Angles

4.13.3 Indices

4.14 PATELLA

4.14.1 Measurements

4.14.2 Angles

4.15 TIBIA

4.15.1 Measurements

4.15.2 Angles

4.15.3 Indices

4.16 FIBULA

4.16.1 Measurements

4.16.2 Angles

4.16.3 Indices

4.17 FOOT AS A WHOLE

4.17-A Tarsus

4.17-A (1) Measurements

4.17-A (2) Indices

4.17-B Talus Bone

4.17-B (1) Measurements

4.17-B (2) Angles

4.17-B (3) Indices

4.17-C Calcaneous Bone

4.17-C (1) Measurements

4.17-C (2) Angles

4.17-C (3) Indices

4.17-D Navicular Bone

4.17-D (1) Measurements

4.17-D (2) Indices

4.17-E Cuneiform Medial I Bone

4.17-E (1) Measurements

4.17-E (2) Indices

4.17-F Cuneiform Intermedium II and Cuneiform Laterale III Bone

4.17-F (1) Measurement

4.17-F (2) Indices

4.17-G Cuboid Bone

4.17-G (1) Measurements

4.17-G (2) Indices

4.17-H Metratarsus

4.17-H (1) Measurements

4.17-H (2) Angles

4.17-H (3) Indices

4.17-I Phalanges

4.17-I (1) Measurements

4.17-I (2) Indices

4.18 PROPORTION INDICES

4.19 OSTEOMETRY OF THE POST-CRANIAL SKELETON

4.20 ESTIMATION OF STATURE FROM BONES OF UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITIES

4.21 A METHOD FOR STUDYING THE SKELETON OF HUMAN FOETUSES

5. CRANIOMETRY

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 DETERMINATION OF SEX AND AGE OF SKULL

5.3 AGEING OF SKULL

5.4 CRANIOMETRY TERMS

5.5 CRANIOMETRIC LANDMARKS

5.6 CRANIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

5.6.1 Length Measurements on Neurocranium (Brain Cavity)

5.6.2 Breadth Measurements on Neurocranium (Brain Cavity)

5.6.3 Height Measurements on Neurocranium (Brain Cavity)

5.6.4 Circumference, Measurements Arcs and Chords on Neurocramium (Brain Cavity)

5.6.5 Length Measurements on Splanchonocranium (Face)

5.6.6 Breadth Measurements on Splanchonocranium (Face)

5.6.7 Height Measurements on Splanchonorcanium (Face)

5.6.8 Measurements on Orbit and Inter-orbital Region

5.6.9 Measurements of Nasal Region

5.6.10 Measurements on Upper Jaw and Palate

5.6.11 Measurements on Lower Jaw or Mandible

5.6.12 Angles on the Face of the Skull

5.6.13 Angles of the Cranium 5.6.14. Volume and Weight of Skull

5.7 CRANIOMETRIC INDICES

5.8 CRANIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

5.8.1 Drawing of Curves

5.8.1.1 Sagittal Curves

5.8.1.2 Frontal Curves

5.8.1.3 Horizontal Curves

5.8.2 Measurements on Craniographs

5.9 CRANIOSCOPIC OBSERVATION

6. SOMATOMETRY

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 SOMATOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

6.3 ASCERTAINMENT OF AGE

6.3.1 Age Grouping

6.4 SOMATOMETRIC LANDMARKS

6.5 SOMATOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

6.5.1 Projective Height Measurements of the Body in Standing Position

6.5.2 Measurements of Extremities and Span

6.5.3 Measurements on the Dorsal Side

6.5.4 Projective Height in Sitting Position

6.5.5 Linear Measurements of Frontal Trunk and Neck

6.5.6 Breadth and Depth Measurements of Trunk and Waist

6.5.7 Length and Breadth Measurements of the Upper Extremities

6.5.8 Length and Breadth Measurements of Lower Extremities

6.5.9 Girth Measurements of Upper Extremities

6.5.10 Girth Measurements of Lower Extremities

6.5.11 Body Weight and Volume

6.5.12 Skinfold Measurements

6.5.13 Head Measurements - Longitudinal Measurements of Head

6.5.14 Breadth Measurements of Head and Face

6.5.15 Breadth Measurements on Nose and Mouth

6.5.16 Height and Thickness Measurements of Forehead and Face

6.5.17 Height and Thickness Measurements of the Mouth and Chin Region

6.5.18 Measurements on Ear

6.5.19 Angles on Face

6.5.20 Circumference of Girth and Arc Measurements of Head and Face

6.6 SOMATOMETRIC INDICES

6.6.1 Relative Height-Length Proportions

6.6.2 Vertical Horizontal Relationship

6.6.3 Comparisons of Extremities with Each Other

6.6.4 Relative Proportions of Breadths, Thickness and Girths

6.6.5 Height-Weight Indices

6.6.6 Robusticity-Indices

6.6.7 Skinfold Thickness and Weight Indices and Relative Skinfold Thickness

6.6.8 Indices of Head and Relationship of Head and Face

6.6.9 Main Proportions of Face

6.6.10 Indices of the Eye-Nose Region

6.6.11 Indices of Ear

6.6.12 Indices of the Mouth-Chin Region

6.6.13 Skinfold Thickness and Weight Indices

6.7 NOMOGRAMS

6.8 SOMATOSCOPIC TECHNIQUES

6.8.1. Body Postures (Standing) after Brown

6.8.2 Neck

6.8.3 Abdomen

6.8.4 Buttock

6.8.5 Upper and Lower Extremities with Hand and Foot

6.8.6 Hand

6.8.7 Fingers

6.8.8 Finger Nails

6.8.9 Foot

6.8.10 Toes

6.8.11 Toe Nails

6.8.12 Skin colour

6.8.12.1 Luschan’s Skin Colur Chart

6.8.12.2 Measurements of Skin Colour by Spectrometry

6.8.13 Hair

6.8.13.1 Hair Colour

6.8.13.2 Hair Form

6.8.13.3 Hair Texture

6.8.13.4 Quantity of Hair

6.8.13.5 Hair Whorls

6.8.13.6 Beard and Moustache

6.8.13.7 Mid-Phalangeal Hair

6.8.14 Head

6.8.14.1 Vertex

6.8.14.2 Occiput

6.8.14.3 Total Face

6.8.14.4 Forehead

6.8.14.5 Widow’s Peak

6.8.15 Cheeks

6.8.16 Eyes

6.8.17 Nose

6.8.17.1 Nasal Root

6.8.17.2 Nasal Bridge

6.8.17.3 Tip of Nose

6.8.17.4 Nasal Wings and Alae

6.8.17.5 Nasal Septum

6.8.17.6 Nasal Cavity

6.8.17.7 Surface of Nasal Cavity

6.8.18 Lips

6.8.18.1 Integumental Upper Lip

6.8.18.2 Integumental Lower Lip

6.8.19 Mouth

6.8.20 Teeth

6.8.21 Lip and Chin Furrow

6.8.21.1 Size

6.8.21.2 Profile of Chin

6.8.21.3 Shape and Size of Chin

6.8.21.4 Tongue

6.8.21.5 Tongue Pigmentation

6.8.21.6 Prognathism

6.8.22 External Ear

6.8.23 Puberty Rating

6.8.23.1 Stages of Axillary and Facial Hair Development

6.8.23.2 Age at Menarche

6.8.24 Genitalia

6.8.24.1 Male Genitalia

6.8.24.2 Female External Genitalia

6.8.24.3 Breasts

6.8.24.4 Buttocks and Lumbar Curvature

6.8.25 The Mongolian or Sacral Spot

6.8.26 Behavioural Traits

6.8.26.1 Hand Clasping

6.8.26.2 Arm Folding

6.8.26.3 Leg Folding

6.8.26.4 Handedness

6.8.26.5 Tongue Rolling

6.8.26.6 Tongue Folding

6.8.26.7 Tongue Curling

6.8 SKELETAL AGE

6.9.1 Soft-Tissue Measurements from Radiographs

7. RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 RESPIRATORY OBSERVATIONS

7.3 Instrument

7.3.1 Vital Capacity (VC) or Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)

7.3.2 Expiratory Capacity and Inspiration Capacity

7.3.3 Maximum Breathing Capacity

8. BODY DENSITY

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 BODY DENSITY ESTIMATION

8.2.1 Water Displacement Techniques

8.2.2 Under Water Weighing Technique

8.3 MEASUREMENT EXTREMITY SEGMENT VOLUMES

8.3.1 Reproducibility

8.4 Indices

9. SOMATOTYPING

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING HEATH - CARTER SOMATOTYPE

9.3 HEATH - CARTER SOMATOTYPE RATING FORM

9.4 CALCULATING THE HEATH CARTER ANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPE

9.4.1 Endomorphy Rating

9.4.2 Mesomorphy Rating

9.4.3 Ectomorphy Rating

9.4.4 The Heath Carter Anthropometric Somatotype

9.5 SOMATOTYPE COMPONENT CALCULATIONS

9.6 SPECIFICATION FOR SOMATOTYPE CATEGORIES

9.6.1 Regions of Somatochart

9.6.2 Technology to Describe Individual Somatotypes

9.6.3 Construction of Somatochart

9.7 HEIGHT - WEIGHT RATIO FACTOR TABLE

9.7 SOMATOTYPE COMPONENT CALCULATIONS

9.8 SOMATOTYPE COMPONENT CALCULATIONS

10. PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS

10.2.1 Strength

10.2.1.1 Static Muscular Strength

10.2.1.2 Explosive Muscular Strength

10.2.2 Speed

10.2.2.1 The Dashes

10.2.3 Agility and Co-ordination

10.2.3.1 Flexibility Test

10.2.3.2 The Walking Balance Test

10.2.3.2.AThe Turning Balance Test

10.2.3.3 The Shuttle Run Test

10.2.3.4 The Co-ordination Test

10.2.4 Persistence (per time)

10.2.5 Endurance Test

10.2.5.1 Step Test

10.2.6 Studies of Functional Asymmetry

10.2.6.1 The Hand-clasping Test

10.2.6.2 The Arm-folding Test

10.2.6.3 The Leg-folding Test

10.2.3 Agility and Co-ordination

10.2.3.1 Flexibility Test

10.2.3.2 The Walking Balance Test

10.2.3.2.A The Turning Balance Test

10.2.3.3 The Shuttle Run Test

10.2.3.4 The Co-ordination Test

10.2.4 Persistence (per time)

10.2.5 Endurance Test

10.2.5.1 Step Test

10.2.6 Studies of Functional Asymmetry

10.2.6.1 The Hand-clasping Test

10.2.6.2 The Arm-folding Test

10.2.6.3 The Leg-folding Test

11. DENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 DENTAL EXAMINATION

11.2.1 Tooth Types and Formula

11.2.1.1 Teeth Types

11.2.1.2 Tooth Formula

11.2.2 Surface of Teeth

11.2.3 Primary and Permanent Teeth

11.2.4 Dental Observations

11.2.4.1 Number of Primary and Secondary Teeth

11.2.4.2 Numerical Variations

11.2.4.3 Dental Morphology

11.2.4.4 Mutilations

11.2.4.5 Attrition

11.2.4.6 Metric Measurements

11.3 PREPARATION OF DENTAL CASTS

11.3.1 Apparatus and Chemicals

11.3.2 Method of obtaining Dental Impressions

11.4 DENTINE EXPOSURE IN HUMAN TOOTH ATTRITION

11.4.1 The Dentinal Area

11.4.1.1 The Maxillary Teeth

11.4.1.2 The Mandibular Teeth

11.4 DENTINE EXPOSURE IN HUMAN TOOTH ATTRITION

12. DIET SURVEY

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.1.1 Importance of Diet Survey

12.1.2 Purpose of Diet Surveys

12.1.3 Units of Diet Surveys

12.1.4 Methods of Diet Survey

12.1.5 Organization and Planning of Diet Surveys

12.1.6 Use of Standardised Cups and Certain Foods in Diet Survey

12.2 NUTRITIONAL STATUS

12.2.1 Food Habits

12.2.2 Individual Dietary Intake (Oral Questionnaire)

12.2.2.1 Food Consumption

12.2.2.2 Food Consumption (For Cooked Food)

12.2.2.3 Cooked Food Discarded Appendix

13. DERMATOGLYPHICS

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 METHODS OF RECORDING DERMATOGLYPHICS

13.3 DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERN CONFIGURATIONS

13.4 PRINCIPLES OF CONFIGURATIONAL ARRANGEMENT

13.5 DERMATOGLYPHIC LANDMARKS

13.6 FINGER DERMATOGLYPHICS

13.6.1 Configurations of Fingers

13.6.2 Direction of Whorls

13.6.3 Finger Ball Tip Prints Indices

13.6.4 Symmetry, Asymmetry and Actual and Chance Frequency

13.6.5 Bimanuar

13.6.7 Dactylodiagram

13.6.8 Quantitative Value

13.6.8.1 Finger Ridge Count

13.6.9 Genotypes

13.7 CONFIGURATIONS OF MIDDLE AND PROXIMAL PHALANGES

13.8 THE PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS

13.8.1 Configurational Areas

13.8.2 Digital Triradii

13.8.3 Tracing of Main Lines

13.8.4 Scheme of Number for Formulation of Palmar Main Line

13.8.5 Formulatory Symbols in the Presence of Accessory Triradii

13.8.6 Abortive Nature and Polymorphism of C-Line

13.8.7 C-and A-Lines Exist

13.8.7.1 C-Line Exist

13.8.7.2 A-Line Exist

13.8.8 Position of Axial Triradii

13.8.9 Interpretation and Formulation of Palmar Configuration

13.8.9.1 Hypothenar Triradii and Patterns

13.8.9.2 Hypothenar Patterns

13.8.9.3 Thenar and First Interdigital Areas

13.8.9.4 Second, Third and Fourth Interdigital Areas

13.8.10 Palmar Formula

13.8.11 Modal Types of Lines D and A

13.8.11.1 Three Co-ordinate Graph

13.8.12 Main Line Index

13.8.12.1 Right-Left Ratio

13.8.12.2 Transversality

13.8.13 Pattern Intensity

13.8.14 Quantitative Ridge Counts

13.8.14.1 Ridge-Counts of the Patterns of the Palms

13.8.14.2 Ridge-Counts on Palm (Interdigital Areas and d-t)

13.9 PLANTAR DERMATOGLYPHICS

13.9.1 Patterns on Toes

13.9.2 Toe Prints Indices

13.9.3 Toe Ridge Count

13.9.4 The Sole

13.9.5 Configurational Areas

13.9.6 Plantar Triradii

13.9.7 Method for Analysis of Plantar Print

13.9.8 Formulation of Main Lines

13.9.9 Modal Types

13.9.10 Calculation of Main Line Index

13.9.10.1 Transversality

13.9.11 Formulation of Configurational Areas with Pattern

13.9.12 Complete Plantar Formula

13.9.13 Quantitative Ridge Count

13.9.13.1 Ridge-Counts of Plantar Patterns

13.9.13.2 Ridge-Counts of the Digital Areas of Soles

13.10 DEVELOPMENT OF DERMAL RIDGES IN THE FOETUS

13.10.1 Method

13.10.2 Structure of Dermal Surface and Terminology

13.11 PLANTAR DERMATOGLYPHICS

13.11.1 Topological Classification of Finger-Tip Dermatoglyphics

13.11.2 Topological Description of Palmar and Plantar Dermatoglyphics

13.11.3 Topological Classification of Palmar Dermatoglyphics

13.11.3.1 Loops

13.11.3.1 General Principles

13.11.3.2 Triradii

13.11.3.3 Writing of Formula

13.11.3.4 Instructions for Classifying Patterns on the Palm

13.11.3.5 Hypothenar Area

13.11.4 Topological Classification of Plantar Dermatoglyphics

13.11.4.1 Loops

13.11.4.2 Triradii

13.11.4.3 Writing the Formula

13.11.4.4 Instructions for Classifying Patterns on the Distal Half of the Sole

13.11.4.5 Instructions for Classifying Patterns on the Proximal Sole

13.11.5 Dermatoglyphic Dictionary

13.12 FLEXION CREASES

13.12.1 Hand Flexion Creases

13.12.1.1 Digital Creases

13.12.1.2 Palm Flexion Creases

13.12.2 Plantar Flexion Creases

13.13 FORENSIC APPLICATION

13.13.1 Finger Prints

13.13.1.1 Classification

13.13.1.2 Method of Arrangements of Finger Prints Cards for Record

13.13.1.3 Other Systems of Classification

13.13.1.4 Latent Finger Print

13.13.1.5 Comparison of Finger-print Impression

13.13.2 Middle Phalangen Impression

13.13.2.1 Classification

13.13.3 Palm Prints

13.13.3.1 Classification

13.13.4 Sole Print

13.13.4.1 Classification

14. ANTHROPO-DEMOGRAPHY

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 SCHEDULE

14.2.1 Identification

14.2.2 Type of Residence/Housing

14.2.3 Preliminary Information

14.2.4 Genealogy

14.2.5 Principal Source of Income of the Household

14.2.6 Fertility Behaviour

14.2.6.1 Reproductive Cycle and Nuptiality Behaviour

14.2.6.2 Reproductive History

14.2.6.3 Safe Motherhood

14.2.6.4 Information Regarding Children Born Alive

14.2.6.5 Lactation and Post-Partum

14.2.6.6 Choosing Sex of the Child/Preference for a Particular Sex of the Child


14.2.7 Mortality

14.2.7.1 Mortalities (Including Mortality Cases of Accidents/ Death/Suicides etc.)

14.2.7.2 Abortions/Miscarriages

14.2.7.3 Still Births

14.2.8 Family Planning

14.3 POPULATION STUDY: MEASURES

14.3.1 Measures of Sex Composition

14.3.2 Measures of Age Composition

14.3.3 Measures of Economic Activity

14.3.4 Measures of Educational Characteristics

14.3.5 Measures of Population Distribution

14.3.6 Measures of Growth of Population

14.3.7 Measures of Mortality

14.3.8 Measures of Fertility

14.3.9 Measures of Nuptiality

14.3.10 Measures of Migration

14.3.11 Methods of Population Estimation and Projection

14.3.12 Demographic Models

15. STATISTICAL METHODS

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

15.3 MEASURES OF DISPERSION

15.4 CORRELATION AND REGRESSION

15.5 TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE

15.6 COLLECTION OF DATA

15.7 COMPILATION AND PRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA

15.7.1 Tables

15.7.2 Graphs

15.7.3 Z Charts and Lorenz Curves

15.7.4 Diagrams

15.8 GRAPHING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

15.9 SKEWNESS

15.10 PHRASES TO DESCRIBE CORRELATION

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

INDEX

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